Book aggregators and distributors: How your book gets to your readers

The purpose of this post is to define the terms aggregation and distribution. I also want to introduce you to the tools and services I recommend to most authors. Read carefully and get on the right publishing path that reaches a wide network of online ebook retailers and brick-and-mortar bookstores.

Indie authors can upload ebooks to sell at each online ebook retailer directly, but we might instead choose to distribute them to many using an ebook aggregator. Likewise, we can sell our print book to online print book retailers and brick-and-mortar bookstores directly or use a distribution service.

Yeah boy, that is a lot of geeky publishing terms! So let’s wind it down and go through it in slo mo…

The difference between distribution and aggregation

When you understand the difference between the terms aggregation and distribution you’ll be equipped to make good decisions about where to spend your publishing dollars.

Definition of “aggregation” and “distribution”

the formation of a number of things into a cluster
(on the Internet) the collection of related items of content so that they can be displayed or linked to

the action of sharing something out among a number of recipients
the action or process of supplying goods to stores and other businesses that sell to consumers.

An ebook aggregator distributes your ebook to a wide range of online retailers. Aggregators collect a percentage of sales (about 10%) to provide you with wide distribution plus centralized accounting and payment services. Most people say “distribution” to mean “aggregation,” but that’s okay. It has come to mean the same thing: getting your book in whatever format to all the stores. My favorite way to distribute ebooks if you have already formatted your book is by using Smashwords plus Amazon KDP. If you need formatting help, try Draft2Digital.

A book distributor sends your print book (POD/print-on-demand, in most cases) to the online booksellers and brick-and-mortar bookstores. IngramSpark is currently the only reliable distribution channel that indie authors can use to reach brick-and-mortar stores because they offer the 53% discount and returns program that bookstores require. Even though Amazon CreateSpace books are listed in the database that bookstores see, they generally do not like to order books from Amazon and they only offer a 40% discount (and no returns). My favorite way to distribute print books is by using a combination CreateSpace and IngramSpark and offering a 30% discount and no returns. (More on that a little further down the page.)

Even though ebook aggregation is different from book distribution, most people just call it all distribution, especially when the company does both. Smashwords provides ebook aggregation only, but IngramSpark provides both print and ebook distribution. Get it?

Subscribe to my Author Friendly news for a free self-publishing mini-course and  A Consumer’s Guide to Writing & Publishing Tools & Services ebook.


Where books are distributed and aggregated

Your customer doesn’t care if it’s called aggregation or distribution, they just find your ebook in the store they like to shop in. That store is called an online retailer. Once the customer buys your book, they’ll get it in the mail (if they order the print version), or download the ebook to their ebook reading device in Kindle format (if they bought it from Amazon) or EPUB format (if they bought it in any other store).

An online ebook retailer is an online store that sells ebooks in EPUB or Kindle format to your customers. The major online ebook retailers are Amazon (which enjoys the majority of the market), Kobo (with its wide international reach), Barnes & Noble Nook, Apple, and Google Play. There are many, many others. You could rather tediously sign up for each of their publishing programs, type in your automatic payment information, and upload your ebook to each of these stores separately. But many authors find that using an ebook aggregator or two to reach all the retailers is much more efficient. I like a combination of Amazon KDP and Smashwords. More on why, a bit later.

An ebook reading device is any device or app that can read the ebooks purchased from an online retailer. iPad owners have been trained to download the EPUB version and Kindle owners know they need a Kindle (KF8, mobi, or azw) file. You can read Amazon Kindle books on your iPhone using a Kindle app that you download from the app store. However, you can’t read an ebook in EPUB format on your Kindle ebook reader, because it’s a dedicated, one-purpose device that only reads Kindle files. Today, most people read ebooks on a multi-purpose tablet computer using an app.

The definition of a bookstore is changing. A bookstore is both a brick-and-mortar building and an online book retailer. On the one hand, you’ve got what’s called “pure-play” retailers that focus only on selling books. An example is B&N. On the other hand, there are retailers that sell books along with other products, like Amazon. Amazon sells about a third of printed books in the US and is now opening brick-and-mortar retail bookstores, too. Books-A-Million, or BAM!, is the second-largest brick-and-mortar book retailer in the US after B&N. They also sell books online and, in 2016, announced their BAM!Publish product for authors, powered by FastPencil.

Direct selling from your own website or at events or even from the trunk of your car is another way to distribute. There are a lot of tools that will help you sell books on your own website by embedding a widget. Check out Gumroad, Leanpub, and Patreon to get familiar with the kinds of things you can do.

Where print and ebooks are distributed for self-published authors

My go-to list for the DIY independent author

Here’s a summary of the companies I most often recommend to authors who have professionally produced a book and need distribution to the ebook and print book retailers. There are lots more in the consumer’s guide.


Smashwords is an ebook aggregator that provides ebook distribution everywhere except Amazon Kindle. They offer lots of perks and features, including library distribution, pre-orders, and marketing tools like author self-interviews, gifting, and discount coupons. Format your book according to their style guide or make it easy on yourself by using a Book Design Template in Word or InDesign for between $37 and $77), and submit it to their Premium Catalog.

Smashwords also allows you to upload an EPUB file, via Smashwords Direct, that you’ve already created with InDesign or a tool such as PressBooks, Draft2Digital, Scrivener (for Mac and Windows), Vellum, or any ebook formatting service. (Sign up for my indie author newsletter and get a free list and description of these tools and more.)

If you can’t manage to format your Word file according to the Smashwords Style Guide, or you don’t want to buy a Book Design Template, you can use Draft2Digital or hire someone to do it for you. A list is available from Smashwords at “Mark’s List.”

Book Design Templates formatting books self-publishing TIP! Pricing your book at free. If you want to price your ebook at free (as a permanent or temporary promotion), you’ll need to use the “make your ebook free on Amazon” trick.


I also like Draft2Digital, also an ebook aggregator, which reaches Amazon Kindle, B&N Nook, Kobo, Apple iBooks, Scribd, Inktera, Tolino, and 24Symbols. They have an automatic book formatting tool on their site and great customer service. Like most vendors, Smashwords, they keep 10% of the sales price.

The advantage of D2D over Smashwords is that they will format your book for you and give you the EPUB and MOBI (Kindle) file so you can do with it what you will, such as upload it to other aggregators and sell it on your own site, too. (Using a tool like Gumroad, for example, which is listed below.)


Scribl is an interesting service that’s not talked about a whole lot yet but offers a couple of unique advantages. They distribute your ebook to Apple, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Kobo, and hundreds of others, and it also offers your ebook and audiobook (and podcasts, too) in their store to customers hungry for free and low-cost books using a CrowdPricing system. CrowdPricing encourages readers to take a chance on a new, undiscovered authors (you, perhaps?) by pricing them at free or almost-free. When your book is first published on Scribl, it will be free for a brief promotional period. The more good ratings and downloads it gets, the higher the price goes, and vice-versa. The most popular books among readers cost about as much as you would pay for a typical popular ebook at your favorite online bookstore. Books that have not yet sold as well cost less.

Scribl claims that CrowdPricing produces 30 times more total revenue for content than with conventional, author-priced systems. Because customers trust the prices, they’re more willing to pay. They also report that most downloads are paid downloads—unlike conventional systems, where most of the downloads are free.

You can use their CrowdPricing Everywhere system to earn 70% royalty (often more than if you posted directly) along with a listing in their crowdpricing site with price-based ratings. You earn 75-85% of gross revenue (not net), minus PayPal fees. They keep 15%-25%. If you just provide your ebook you get 75%. If you supply your ebook and audiobook, you get 85% and other benefits. You are paid every 48 hours.



IngramSpark is both a print book distribution service ebook aggregator. It is owned by Ingram (the largest book distribution company in the world), so they have very wide reach. Most of the other aggregators “hook in” to Ingram’s distribution service, so you don’t have to use IngramSpark to get Ingram distribution. However, IngramSpark is the only service that offers both ebook and print book distribution in a single dashboard. (Note that IngramSpark replaces Ingram’s Lightning Source publishing service so, unless you’re a legacy user of Lightning Source, you’ll sign up with IngramSpark.) IngramSpark also offers hardback book production and distribution.


Amazon KDP and CreateSpace are two separate online services and neither aggregators nor distributors. They simply get your book into the Amazon store. KDP (Kindle Direct Publishing) is Amazon’s tool to get your ebook into the Amazon store and CreateSpace gets your paperback book into the Amazon store. They have separate dashboards and payment systems.

Amazon KDP for Ebooks

Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP) is not an aggregator, it is Amazon’s tool for self-publishers to upload ebooks in Kindle format for sale in the Amazon store. If you’re using IngramSpark, don’t worry about it. They will distribute your Kindle formatted book to Amazon. Smashwords doesn’t distribute to the Amazon Kindle store. No problem. Just edit your Smashwords file and upload it to KDP.

Amazon CreateSpace for Paperbacks

Amazon CreateSpace is an online POD book creation tool and their free Expanded Distribution program claims to make your book available to online retailers and brick-and-mortar bookstores. That’s kind of a stretch because CreateSpace does not offer the discounts and returns program that brick-and-mortar bookstores insist upon. Self-publishers must use IngramSpark for that job. (Do remember that you must actually market to the booksellers.)

Therefore (and this is a big therefore!), I advise that you opt-out of Amazon CreateSpace’s Expanded Distribution program (which is free but don’t be tempted) and instead use IngramSpark to distribute your PDF-formatted print-on-demand book everywhere else. That way your book will always show “in stock” in the Amazon store and you get Ingram’s great distribution everywhere else.


Gumroad makes it easy for you to sell your book on your own website using one of their WordPress widgets. Just upload your digital files and customers pay for and automatically download your books while you sleep. Got autographed books or other physical objects to sell? You get an order form so you can fulfill it yourself.

Other interesting services OUTSIDE THE USA

Publish Drive in Hungary, StreetLib in Italy and the US, and Type & Tell in the UK and Sweden may be of  interest if you live and work in those countries. Find reviews of these services in the free consumer’s guide when you sign up for my Author Friendly email news.

Self-publishing independent author toolkit


Ebook only or ebook first

Many young authors writing genre fiction are happy with ebook only or ebook first. If this fits your profile you will probably use:

  1. Smashwords to sell your book in all stores except Amazon.
  2. Amazon KDP to sell the Kindle version in the Amazon store.
  3. Or Draft2Digital to dip your toe in, and then expand using Smashwords.
  4. Or Scribl to try out the CrowdPricing system.

Complete distribution

Professional authors who want complete ebook and print book distribution will be attracted to this scenario:

  1. Use IngramSpark for print distribution.
  2. Enjoy a direct relationship with Amazon by uploading your books to Amazon CreateSpace for print and KDP for Kindle. Use IngramSpark to handle the rest of the ebook and print book distribution, or…
  3. Use Amazon KDP and Amazon Createspace, plus IngramSpark for print and Smashwords plus Amazon KDP for ebook distribution.
    Add these options to any of the three options above:
  4. If you chose 1 or 2, above, upload your book to the Smashwords Standard Catalog as well, to take advantage of their store and features like coupon codes.
  5. Add Gumroad for direct book sales and autographed books via their sales widget on your WordPress website.

For authors who need a lot of help

If you are not willing or able to create your own files or manage your own team, I recommend BookBaby or Gatekeeper Press. These are full-service ebook and print book formatting and distribution companies with editing and design services, too. Do purchase your own ISBNs.

Important! Buy your own ISBNs

You can obtain ISBNs and barcodes from all of these services but I always very strongly recommend that you buy your own from Bowker MyIdentifiers in order to retain full control of your book. (This link is for authors in the US, so if you’re not in the US search for the ISBN agency in your country.)

To be even clearer on this, owning your own ISBNs and having direct access to MyIdentifiers makes a huge difference in your business as an independent author. Authors who are publishers, aka author-entrepreneurs, should always retain full control and this is the only way to do it.

You’ll need one ISBN each for:

  • Hardback
  • Paperback
  • EPUB
  • Kindle
  • Audiobook
  • and so on (such as the multimedia edition)

List the ISBNs for each edition on your copyright page for all versions of your book.

Buy a pack of 10 or even 100. Don’t bother to buy a barcode for print versions. You can get one free using IngramSpark’s book cover template generator.

A note about book formatting

I recommend Book Design Templates for those of you who work with Word and InDesign. But Scrivener (for Mac and Windows) is my favorite organization and writing tool. Scrivener exports your manuscript to ebook formats automagically, however, the PDF for print isn’t very good. I also like PressBooks, which does a great job of PDF for print and ebook formats. Use LeanPub to beta publish, test your market, and make some money, too. If you’re on a Mac, Vellum is an awesome, easy-to-use book design program. If you need a book creation service and don’t want to manage your own team, BookBaby and Gatekeeper Press are two popular services that both create and distribute your book.

Questions? Comments?

There you have it: A short-and-sweet introduction to book aggregation and distribution. There are many other aggregators and distributors, but these are the ones I most highly recommend.

What do you think? Would you change any of my definitions? Do you have direct experience with any of these companies? I’d love to hear about it. Would you recommend another company besides the ones I mentioned? Please let me know in the comments below. I’d really appreciate it!

Free ebook and self-publishing MINI-COURSE





5 thoughts on “Book aggregators and distributors: How your book gets to your readers”

  1. Hi. Can you please suggest me as to what self-publishing company is best for ebooks? And paperbacks as well. I’m confused about bookbaby and smashwords. They’re almost same but bookbaby distributes to kindle as well, whereas smashwords does not. And I heard that kindle is important for your ebook sales. Other thing that I liked more about BB was its marketing ways. Bookpromo and bookshop. And I’m not so sure about SW all that much. Despite all that I’m confused as to whether which one of them is better. Tough if I have to be honest, BB is really attractive.
    If I get formatting done from some professional then upload it to the respective website, do you think that’sbetter or should I let the respective site do it themselves?
    Your suggestions and advice will be appreciated.
    Thank you,

  2. Hi Carla and hope you are well!
    I realize this thread/post is a few years old but I still wanted to try and ask you a few questions.
    First, thank you for all the information and defining distribution and aggregation. That helped me to clarify terminology for what I am looking for in all these companies.
    After many phone calls and conversations with so many ‘aggregators’…I decided to move forward on my own and not have a middle person to centralize accounts. I am working with someone to format my manuscript and then will upload for ebooks as well as POD.
    I feel clear that I want to go with Ingram Spark for POD.
    And I was planning on just choosing a handful of the ‘usual suspects’ (Amazon, B&N, Apple and Kobo) to upload and manage individually. Yes, more work as far as accounting …but I feel okay about that because I was so bothered by how these other companies were handling ‘customer service’.

    ~ In your article, you specify that ‘distribution’ is for print books. But when you describe Pronoun…you say it is an ebook distributor. Can you explain or say more? I am going to research them…but wanted to understand your advice.

    ~ When you gave 2 options under ‘ebook only’…you first suggested Pronoun because they format and distribute to the five major ebook retailers. But then your 2nd option says to use KDP to sell the Kindle version in the Amazon store plus Pronoun for the others.
    Why would anyone choose option #2 if Pronoun will do all of them including Amazon?

    ~ I have researched so much about ISBNs and I agree with you that it makes sense for me to purchase them myself. I saw that Ingram Spark offers a discount ($85)for what appears to be your own ISBN…I don’t think there is any catch to it. Do you think this would be equal to buying it myself on Bowker? Or will I lose some kind of access to my data if I buy it thru Ingram’s discount? I am just trying to understand if there is a downside to this $85 option that I am not seeing. I have no need to buy 10 and so the small savings is helpful.

    ~ Under the section ‘Complete Distribution’ …option #2 says: “Enjoy a direct relationship with Amazon by uploading your books to Amazon CreateSpace for print and KDP for Kindle. Use IngramSpark to handle the rest of the ebook and print book distribution, or…”

    I was confused. Doesn’t Ingram Spark get my print book title onto Amazon? (I know if I use Create Space then my print book title ends up in Ingram’s catalogue…) Does Ingram not communicate with Amazon if I choose and pay them?
    I would prefer to not double up with both…so I want to be clear that Ingram Spark gets me connected to Amazon for print.
    And I guess the same question is true for ebook….if I was to use Ingram as an aggregator…do they send the ebook to Amazon?

    I am guessing that maybe you were suggesting Ingram as well as Amazon in option #2 only if you want a direct relationship with Amazon. But if one is going to use an aggregator for other companies…why would you single out Amazon to have a unique and individual relationship with?

    Again, thanks so much. I appreciate your insights. I hope my questions make sense!

  3. Pronoun has announced it is closing, so I will be moving my first book I published (the ebook version) to another distributor. I currently have my paperback with IngramSpark, but wondered if KDP or Kindle Select would be a good option. Kindle Select seems to have a LOT of marketing tools that other distributors don’t have, but I know I have to get the other ebooks off of sites to go exclusive. Are there other distributors of ebooks that have any real marketing programs and if not, is the yoke of Kindle Select worth the exclusivity?

  4. Should clarify in the third of three points under “My best recommendation for most authors” than in addition that Draft2Digital sells to Amazon Kindle.

  5. Thank you for the mention Carla, I’m sorry I did not notice this discussion earlier. I work at PublishDrive and I’m here to answer any questions or comments you may have.

    After this unfortunate event, we would like to provide authors and publishers left stranded with the smoothest transition possible, so we have created a Pronoun import tool and have struck special deals with some distributors.

    You can read more here: or contact me with further questions.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *